What is the hottest and highest temperature possible or ever recorded on earth?
Conversely, absolute hot, then, could be defined as the point where molecular motion couldn’t produce any more heat, no matter what the circumstances.
Hottest temperature possible
In the Standard Model of the universe, the hottest possible temperature ever reached occurred a fraction of a second (10-43) after the Big Bang. During that minuscule period of time (called one Planck time), the universe is thought to have only been one tiny Planck length (10-35 meters) and have reached absolute hot at 1032 K (called Planck temperature). For comparison, our Sun is a measly 1.571 x 107 K at its center and the highest temperature ever created by man is currently 5.5 X 1012 K.
Beyond Planck temperature being the hottest temperature ever theoretically reached in our universe, physicists hypothesize that at any temperature higher than Planck, the gravitational forces of the affected particles would become equally as strong as the other fundamental forces (electromagnetic and weak and strong nuclear), resulting in all four becoming unified as one force. What happens then? Nobody knows as currently accepted conventional models of physics break down after that point. Of course, all of this is theoretical, since no one has yet to come up with an accepted quantum theory of gravity. As Nobel laureate Steven Weinberg described it, whatever happens at temperatures above 1032 K remains obscured by a “veil.”
Hottest and highest temperature on earth
Hottest temperature facts
It should be noted that not all physicists follow the Standard Model, and some prefer, for instance, String Theory, which attempts to describe all four fundamental forces as different manifestations of a single basic object (a string). For string theorists, the highest possible temperature is far lower than that postulated by the Standard Model; called the Hagedorn temperature, it is the point at which ordinary matter is no longer stable and either “evaporates” or changes into quark matter. Under this theory, the point at which that happens, or absolute hot, is thought to be just 1030 K, or about 1% Planck temperature.
While heating something to anywhere close to Planck temperature is far beyond our technology at present, cooling something down to close to absolute zero is not. For instance, in 2015 researchers at MIT managed to cool sodium potassium molecules down to just 500 nanokelvins or 500 billionths of 1 K.
Fun facts: The energy required to stop the Earth orbiting the Sun is about 2.6478 × 1033 joules or 7.3551 × 1029 watt hours or 6.3285 x 1017 megatons of TNT. For reference, the largest nuclear explosion ever detonated (the Tsar Bomba by the Soviet Union) “only” produced 50 megatons of TNT worth of energy. So it would take about 12,657,000,000,000,000 of those nuclear bombs detonated at the correct location to stop the Earth in its tracks in its orbit around the Sun.
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